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A Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the central processor in a computer that functions to execute the instructions of the user. It is mounted on the motherboard and operates most of the work of the computer. The data passes through the CPU continually that comes from RAM and other units like keyboards and drives. The CPU processes the data and sends it back to RAM and the other units.

Full-Form Of CPU

The CPU Full Form In Computer is the Central Processing Unit and is the most important part of the computer. It receives the data or the information from memory and then applies multiple algorithms or logic operations to deliver the final output. The Central Processing Unit continually receives the instruction to execute the process data. Thus, the CPU performs all the operations on the data on the basis of the given instructions. Next, it executes the instruction received from the user and orders it to the other parts of the computer about what to do. Most of the work of the CPU combines Calculation and data transfer.

Components Of the Central Processing Unit (CPU)

A CPU is the combination of three components that are ALU (arithmetic and logical unit), CU (control unit) and memory and storage unit. ALU and CU have their unique functionality. ALU tackles the Arithmetic and logical operations while the main work of the CU is to control the activities of the computer. The main parts of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) are:

Control Unit (CU)

It is also known as the supervisor of the computer that controls all the operating system activities. CU collects the instruction from the main memory, interprets the constructions, finds out what operation is to perform, and further controls the execution of the instructions.

The serving of the Control Unit is to control the transfer of data and instructions to other units of the computer. It direct and coordinates allthe units of the computerIt receives instructions from memory, interprets them and finally directs the function or operation of the computer. the CU does not process or store the data

  Arithmetic And Logic Unit (ALU)

The Arithmetic and Logic Unit is also a part of the CPU. The actual and final execution of the instruction takes in this part of the CPU. that is, all the arithmetic and logical operations are performed then ALU. Further, ALU has two units, the arithmetic unit and the logic unit.

The Arithmetic unit of ALU does all the basic arithmetic operations such as addition, multiplication, division and more.

While the logic unit of ALU performs all the logical operations of the computer, that includes comparing the two data and calculating which data is greater than, equal to, or less than the other.

Memory or Storage unit  

It is like a small high-speed memory on the CPU, and it is used to store the temporary results. It stores the instruction, data and all the intermediate results in the computer. This unit forwards the required information to another unit of the computer when it is needed. It is also called the Random-Access Memory or main memory or the internal storage unit. The size of the storage unit mainly affects the speed, power and capability of the operating system.

Functions of Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) performs the main four functions.


The principal function of the CPU is to fetch the instructions from memory and further execute them. The control unit performs this operation.

Interpret Instructions 

It is a process of examining the nature of the instruction and determining whether the operation has to be taken further or not. If any operation is important to carry out, it is to be done before executing that particular instruction.

Execute the Instruction 

The CPU finally executes the instructions after interpreting them and getting the final data. ALU executes all the instructions. 


It is the process of writing the result to the memory of the computer system.

The CPU Clock Speed

The Clock Speed ​​indicator is the speed at which instructions are carried by microprocessors that specify how many calculations the processor can perform per second. The term is also known as “clock rate”, “computer frequency”, and “CPU frequency”.

The clock rate of personal computers is a characteristic of performance and the speed of data processing by the CPU. The unit of measurement for this indicator is GHz which represents a billion pulses per second. The higher the value, the better the system performance.

Finally, the CPU receives, decodes, processes and delivers the command data from RAM. CPUs are available on all devices like computers, laptops, tablets and smart TV.

The Central Processing Unit performs all the processing of the entire operating system of the computer. Your computer will be dead without the CPU as it is the basis of the system’s operation. The CPU of the computer is hardware that carries out all the commands and instructions of a programme. It is the intelligence of the computer and is also known as the processor.